Roscoe Pound, former dean of Harvard Law School, famously said “The law must be stable but must not stand still.” Designers of the Supreme Court comparison FRQ for the AP government exam must have been listening.
Consistent with the expectations for this response, I’ve created a few sample prompts, each of which includes one the of the 15 required cases along with a case related to it.
I will add to this list leading up to the exam. Here is a chart with all of the cases– facts, holdings, precedents and significance.
(I’ve also posted samples for the argument essay FRQ here )
The Senate Judiciary Committee Simulation is over. All in all, students did a really stellar job debating the pros and cons of the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act from the perspective of members of the committee and special interest groups like the NRA, police chief associations and the United States Concealed Carry Association, all of which gave passionate testimony to the committee. I could have done a better job preparing the committee members to integrate knowledge of their states’ demographics into the questions they posed to the special interest groups. Continue reading →
Sometimes Big Questions don’t direct learning; they emerge from it.Lost in thought and feelings of despair over the latest tragedy in Florida, I decided to ditch my regularly scheduled government programming and opt instead to hold a congressional hearing simulation on gun control. My classroom will become the Senate Judiciary Committee considering a bill called the Concealed Carry Reciprocity Act. This bill passed the House of Representatives in the fall and is slated for debate in the Senate this spring. In a nutshell, the bill says that any person from a state which has legalized concealed carry can travel into any state which has outlawed the practice. Essentially then, should this bill become law, a person’s right to concealed carry would have to be honored by all 50 states. Students assume the roles of actual Senate Judiciary Committee members who question other students who are playing the role of interest group representatives giving testimony on their positions for and against the bill.Continue reading →
In Monday’s (1/22/18) sschat we discussed ideas for Embedding Writing into the Social Studies Curriculum. I shared an innovative tool called The 4-Sentence Paper, which was created by Dennis Earl, Department Chair and Associate Professor of Philosophy at Coastal Carolina University. Among other purposes, the tool is designed to reduce student fear of writing argumentative papers. Over the last three years, I’ve used it a different way– to empower students to tackle essential questions.
Questions are scary for students because they are confusing, involve multiple perspectives and often contain ambiguous definitions. They get even scarier when students actually have to sit down to answer them.
Embedded within this beautifully simple tool is a smart assumption about student motivation: students are more inspired to write and think when they have a limited task at the outset. That allows them to gain quick success and build confidence over time.
To see how the 4-Sentence Paper technique works, let’s use an essential question from a previous post:
Is popular sovereignty a reality or an illusion?
Let’s say that a student wanted to answer this question by playing around with the idea of the Supreme Court. Here’s how it might unfold:
They say the Supreme Court shows that popular sovereignty is an illusion because judges serve for life terms and therefore can never be voted out of office. If they serve for life then there is no check on their opinions, thus taking power out of the hands of the people.
I say if judges abuse their power, they can be impeached by the House of Representatives and convicted by the Senate, and may lose their job. Because the House of Representatives is elected directly by the people, popular sovereignty is preserved as a check against judicial abuse of power.
They might object that impeachment/conviction is such a rare occurrence that it doesn’t really represent a strong argument that the people are in control.
I reply that just the threat of impeachment/conviction is enough of a check on judicial behavior so that the vast majority of judges must make decisions in the public interest for fear of losing their job.
This is just one line of argument. More angles could be pursued.
Over time students will see that the world is filled with multiples perspectives of understanding. Just imagine if you applied the 4-Sentence Paper over the course of an entire school year with the US history questions we saw in this post.
Students are also honing the skill of argumentation. And as students take a step back, reflect and think deeply, they gain valuable practice demonstrating the core virtues of citizenship: patience, perseverance, humility, confidence and curiosity. These are exactly the kinds of virtues so desperately needed to improve our public conversations.
Here are a few specific ways you could use this 4-Sentence paper strategy with your students in conjunction with essential questions:
Prepare arguments for a larger research paper
Prepare arguments for a class discussion on a controversial topic
Construct an exit or entrance slip to review a lesson which incorporated an essential question
With tools like the 4-Sentence Paper, you can harness the power of essential questions to transform student fear into courageous, philosophical thinking– and nurture great citizens in the process.
(Dennis Earl’s article describing the tool can be found here.)
Asking questions is sometimes a painful act of courage, especially when you are asking the group of people whose opinions you value most: your students.
Chris Hallberg, business consultant and turnaround specialist, wrote this provocative blog post for Leadership Now about the questions business leaders should ask their employees about the health of their organizations. These are not flaky questions one might find on a post-workshop survey. Many are unsettling Big Questions which test the emotional fragility of leaders who often fear constructive criticism and self-reflection.
As I read it, my mind gravitated towards comparisons to classroom teaching and so I decided to tweak the questions just a bit into ones that we could ask our students at the end of a semester or year.
Here we go!
Wow and ouch!
As scary as these questions are, the responses to them would give us a wealth of information about the classroom experience, information that we could act upon to improve learning for all.
So if you are looking for something to do in class right after holiday break, look no further!
What is your favorite question on this list?
Which question on the list would you be most interested in getting answers to?
Which question makes you most nervous?
Reply to this blog or tweet a response to @dmfouts
More on Chris Hallberg: Chris is ranked #9 on Inc.’s “Top 50 Leadership and Management Experts,” is a seasoned business consultant, turnaround expert, United States Army veteran, and author of The Business Sergeant’s Field Manual. You will find his blog at Business Sergeant.
The University of Washington Center for Philosophy of Children has a treasure trove of over 100 children’s stories along with innovative ideas on how to use these stories to introduce Big Questions in the classroom. Most of the stories can be adapted seamlessly to fit the middle and high school audience.
Consider these stories and the Big Questions they inspire:
The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein Is the proper role of government to help citizens or to encourage citizens to help themselves?
The Big Box by Toni Morrison Who gets to decide who is free? or What does it mean to have freedom?
If you Give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff Are historical events determined to happen or can humans change the course of history through their choices?
You might think you can’t use children’s stories, especially in a high school class! It’s too basic and simplistic. The kids will think you are insulting their intelligence.
Dispense with this thinking! Each time I’ve introduced a children’s story, I have found most of my students alert, intrigued and ready to think. This is because I’m drawing upon something familiar and creating a safe space for them to think. It’s the perfect entry point for asking Big Questions.
The best part is that you can come back to the children’s story repeatedly as you work your way through different units, all the while reinforcing the importance of the original Big Questions the story inspired. This strategy would be particularly valuable in an English class with a novel.
What children’s story do YOU use (or could you use) in your classroom?
Next Post: Where can I find Big Questions? Ask a Philosopher